Torture----the deliberate infliction of pain upon the human body----is condemned by most civilized countries, but it is still practiced in many parts of the modern world. For over 3,000 years, it was regarded as not only acceptable but a necessary means of discovering truth. The absence of most other methods of criminal investigation in earlier times tended to justify its use, but "crime" could cover a multitude of activities that were considered contrary to the existing social order. As long as torture remained a part of legal practice, the techniques of torturers----horrific though they were----were generally subject to a degree of control. In more recent times, however, notably during World War II, the torturers have been sadists who derived pleasure from subjecting their victims to terrible suffering. Since 1961, Amnesty International has sought a worldwide ban on torture. But some countries continue to use the rack, the thumbscrews, the "boot", electric shock treatment and other horrifying methods. Each title in this series contains a foreword from the Chairman of the National Law Enforcement Association, color photos throughout, charts, and back matter including: an index, chronology, and further reading lists for books and internet resources. Key Icons appear throughout the books in this series in an effort to encourage library readers to build knowledge, gain awareness, explore possibilities and expand their viewpoints through our content rich non-fiction books. Key Icons in this series are as follows: Words to Understand are shown at the front of each chapter with definitions. These words are set in boldfaced type in that chapter, so that readers are able to reference back to the definitions--building their vocabulary and enhancing their reading comprehension. Sidebars are highlighted graphics with content rich material within that allows readers to build knowledge and broaden their perspectives by weaving together additional information to provide realistic and holistic perspectives. Text-Dependent Questions are placed at the end of each chapter. They challenge the reader's comprehension of the chapter they have just read, while sending the reader back to the text for more careful attention to the evidence presented there. Research Projects are provided at the end of each chapter as well and provide readers with suggestions for projects that encourage deeper research and analysis. And a Series Glossary of Key Terms is included in the back matter containing terminology used throughout the series. Words found here broaden the reader's knowledge and understanding of terms used in this field."
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